Parameterized IN clauses with ADO.NET and LINQ

4.4 (15 votes)

Since my article on using parameters for Preventing SQL Injection In ASP.NET, I have had a few emails asking how to do the same with an IN clause expression. In this entry, I explore a couple of ways to do this.

Just in case you don't know, IN() takes a subquery or expression. The expression is a comma-separated list of values, so the following SQL:

SELECT * FROM Products WHERE CategoryID IN (1,4,8)

will return all Products that have a CategoryID of 1, or 4, or 8. It's a lot simpler to use than a series of OR statements such as

SELECT * FROM Products WHERE CategoryID = 1 OR CategoryID = 4 OR CategoryID = 8

Where it's particularly useful is if you allow the user to choose from a number of categories using CheckBoxes or similar. However, simply doing this:

SELECT * FROM Products WHERE CategoryID IN (@List)
Command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@List", values);

doesn't work, in that @List is a single value. SQL Server doesn't know it should parse whatever @List has as a value into a series of individual values, unless you tell it what to do. There are a large number of SQL Server-specific solutions for this, which are detailed and maintained by SQL Server MVP Erland Sommerskog here. But they all require that you have access to the SQL Server, and can create stored procedures etc. Oh, and that you are not using a database such as Access which doesn't support stored procedures containing control of flow code. What we really want is a solution that can be applied using purely application code.

Recapping the previous article on parameters, a parameterized query consists of a SQL statement (a string) and a collection of Parameter objects. Taking this into account, what we really need to do is construct something like the follow:

SELECT * FROM Products WHERE CategoryID IN (@p1, @p2, @p3)

Since an IN clause contains a variable number of values in its expression, it is impossible to know at design time how many parameters are needed, so these along with the SQL itself need to be constructed at runtime. And once you get your head around that, the rest should fall nicely into place.

I'm going to make this easy and illustrate how to do this with a series of CheckBoxes. Actually, this isn't a series of Checkboxes - the elements are raw HTML inputs of type checkbox:

<input type="checkbox" name="categories" value="1" />Beverages<br />
<input type="checkbox" name="categories" value="2" />Condiments<br />
<input type="checkbox" name="categories" value="3" />Confections<br />
<input type="checkbox" name="categories" value="4" />Dairy Products<br />
<input type="checkbox" name="categories" value="5" />Grains/Cereals<br />
<input type="checkbox" name="categories" value="6" />Meat/Poultry<br />
<input type="checkbox" name="categories" value="7" />Produce<br />
<input type="checkbox" name="categories" value="8" />Seafood<br />

The reason I have used HTML elements instead of CheckBoxes is that you can give all elements the same name attribute, and when they are posted to the server, all checked values are concatenated nicely into a comma delimited list. If you are binding a CheckBoxList server control, you will need to loop through the Items collection and build your own comma separated string. Moving on, in the Button_Click event of this page, the following code appears:

protected void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
  var connect = WebConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["Northwind"].ConnectionString;
  var sql = "SELECT * FROM Products WHERE CategoryID IN ({0}) ORDER BY CategoryID";
  var values = Request.Form["categories"];
  var valuearray = values.Split(',');

  var parms = valuearray.Select((s, i) => "@p" + i.ToString()).ToArray();
  var inclause = string.Join(",", parms);

  using (var conn = new SqlConnection(connect))
    var cmd = new SqlCommand(string.Format(sql, inclause), conn);
    for (var i = 0; i < valuearray.Length; i++)
      cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue(parms[i], valuearray[i]);
    var reader = cmd.ExecuteReader();
    GridView1.DataSource = reader;

All I have done here is to take the comma-separated string from the Request.Form collection, and then used string.Split() to turn it into an array. Using a touch of LINQ, I've then constructed another array with formatted values, so that the elements now take the shape of @p1, @p2 etc. string.Join() is then used to convert the new array into a comma separated string holding the new values, which is then added to the SQL.

Finally, once the Command object has been declared, the initial array is looped through so that the values themselves can be applied to the parameters that are added to the collection.

If you are using LINQ To SQL, or LINQ with the Entity Framework, the answer is much easier. You simpy use the Contains() extension method:

protected void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
  var db = new NorthwindDataContext();
  var temp = Request.Form["categories"].Split(',');
  var output = Array.ConvertAll(temp, s => int.Parse(s));

  var query = db.Products
                  .Where(p => output.Contains(p.CategoryID))
                  .OrderBy(p => p.CategoryID);

  GridView1.DataSource = query;

The SQL this generates is just as you would expect:

exec sp_executesql N'SELECT [t0].[ProductID], [t0].[ProductName], [t0].[SupplierID], 
[t0].[CategoryID], [t0].[QuantityPerUnit], [t0].[UnitPrice], [t0].[UnitsInStock], 
[t0].[UnitsOnOrder], [t0].[ReorderLevel], [t0].[Discontinued]
FROM [dbo].[Products] AS [t0]
WHERE ([t0].[CategoryID]) IN (@p0, @p1, @p2)
ORDER BY [t0].[CategoryID]',N'@p0 int,@p1 int,@p2 int',@p0=1,@p1=4,@p2=7

Woo hoo. You gotta love a bit of LINQ. Again, the Request.Form value is converted to an array of strings using the string.Split() method. To work with the type-safety of LINQ to SQL generated classes and their properties, this then needs to be converted to an array of ints. A nice little method Array.ConvertAll(TInput, TOutput) helps magnificently here. If you read the docs, you will see that it takes an array and a delegate pointing to the method that will perform the conversion from one type to the other. As soon as you see that a method takes a delegate as an argument, it's a candidate for a Lambda expression. This one is no different. The lambda takes each element of the string array and uses int.Parse() to convert it to an int.

One final thing to mention. If you try this yourself with the default schema of the Northwind database, you will probably get a complaint from the compiler around the Contains() method. The reason for this is that Products.CategoryID is by default a nullable int - arising from the fact that the default design of the Northwind database allows nulls in that particular column. The compiler is mightily satisfied if you explicitly cast p.CategoryID to an int:

.Where(p => output.Contains((int)p.CategoryID))

Or you can do what I did - amended the database column so that it does not allow nulls, single click CategoryID in the Products class in the LINQ to SQL designer, go to the properties panel and set Nullable to false.

Date Posted:
Last Updated:
Posted by:
Total Views to date: 46733


- Naomi

Terrific article, thanks.

- Abishek Bellamkonda

How about

.Where(p => p.CategoryID.HasValue && output.Contains(p.CategoryID.Value))

- HoangDung, Le

Nice! Thanks!

- Steve Wellens

Aside from your unnecessary use of the var keyword, it's a great article.

Your writing is sublime.

- Mike


I like using var where the return type is obvious and doens't need to be stated explicitly for code readbility reasons.

But thanks for your comments :o)

- lukas

i have quastion contains method is suported in framewrok version 3.5 ?

- Mike


Yes, it is.

- Afzaal Ahmad Zeeshan

Hi Mike. Why is @p1 being used here? Shouldn't that be @0?

- Mike


Not necessarily. It can be anything. The rule that specifies that parameter markers must be named incrementally @0, @1, @2 etc only applies to the Web Pages Database helper.

- Emily

Thanks, very helpful!!!!

Can i use this for multiple in's ?????

IN (.....) and IN(...) and IN (...)

- Mike


No, the helper won't cater for that. But your requirement doesn't make any sense to me either.

Recent Comments

Phil 29/11/2015 18:48
In response to iTextSharp - Working with images
Hi Mike, great article as ever. Any chance you can do an example of adding a swf to a pdf with I it...

makhlas 27/11/2015 17:05
In response to How To Send Email In ASP.NET MVC
hello, thanks for sharing these tutos , but when i apply the send button, i'm gettin this error...

raphael 27/11/2015 13:59
In response to ASP.NET 5: Managing Client-side Dependencies with NPM, Bower and Gulp
i fixed it. i'm not sure *what* it is that VS does, but you get the same result if you do a "npm on...

Raphael 27/11/2015 13:02
In response to ASP.NET 5: Managing Client-side Dependencies with NPM, Bower and Gulp
There seems to be a major issue with the dependency manager in VS2015. I haven't yet figured out but...

Joaquín Bresan 26/11/2015 17:58
In response to Getting the identity of the most recently added record
Great contribution friend. Thank you so much for sharing....

JR 26/11/2015 02:49
In response to ASP.NET MVC 5 with EF 6 - Working With Files
Hello, Where is the location of the database? Thanks...

sumalatha 24/11/2015 22:09
In response to ASP.NET 5 Middleware, Or Where Has My HttpModule Gone?
Great article. I have gone through hundreds of articles, finally this gives the comprehensive of...

TimPat10 24/11/2015 17:35
In response to A Better Way To Export Gridviews To Excel
Great article. I've noticed that date fields have to be re-formatted when the spreadsheet is pulled...

Rajasekar 24/11/2015 12:27
In response to Import Data From Excel to Access with ASP.NET
While use this code i'm facing on error: "Unrecognized Database format C:\mydabase.accdb" can any...

Parmod 24/11/2015 07:28
In response to ASP.NET 5 Project Basics
For a new learner (Fresher) in ASP.NET there is a issue Fresher have to learn two types of , old...