Scheduled Tasks In ASP.NET With Quartz.Net

A perennial question on the ASP.NET forums concerns how to schedule regular tasks as part of a web application. Typically, the requirement is to send emails once every 24 hours at a particular time each day, but it could actually be anything from tweeting on a schedule to performing maintenance tasks. Equally typically, half a dozen members on the forum dive in with recommendations to install Windows Services or schedule batch files with the Task Scheduler - regardless of the fact that most web site owners are not afforded such privileges as part of their shared hosting plan.

I've looked at how you can use the Session_Start event in Global.asax to manage rudimentary "timed" jobs previously. However, it relies on there being sufficient traffic to your web site that the event gets fired often enough for your scheduling needs. And of course, if that is not the case, it is of no use when dealing with time-critical tasks. A much more robust solution can be found in the shape of Quartz.NET - an open source scheduling library which is available via nuget. This article looks at a basic implementation that will get you up and running with a scheduled email job. I have chosen to use a Web Forms application to illustrate the use of Quartz.NET in an ASP.NET setting, but the steps are easily translated to MVC or Web Pages.

The easiest way to include Quartz.NET in your application is via Nuget. You can do this either by typing Install-Package Quartz at the Package Manager Console prompt or by right clicking on the project in Visual Studio's Solution Explorer and selecting Manage Nuget Packages.

Quartz

Note: If using WebMatrix (ditch it!), just click on the Nuget button in the ribbon bar and ignore the error messages

Then search for 'quartz' and click Install when you find Quartz.NET.

Quartz

At its simplest, Quartz consists of 3 primary components - a job, a trigger and a scheduler. A job is the task to be performed. The trigger dictates how and when the job is executed. Together, the job and the trigger are registered with the scheduler, which takes care of ensuring that the job is performed on the schedule dictated by the trigger configuration.

A job is a class. For it to work with Quartz, it must implement the Quartz IJob interface which has one member: the Execute method. This method defines the actions to be performed. Here's an example of a job:

using Quartz;
using System;
using System.Net;
using System.Net.Mail;

namespace ScheduledTaskExample.ScheduledTasks
{
    public class EmailJob : IJob
    {
        public void Execute(IJobExecutionContext context)
        {
            using (var message = new MailMessage("user@gmail.com", "user@live.co.uk"))
            {
                message.Subject = "Test";
                message.Body = "Test at " + DateTime.Now;
                using (SmtpClient client = new SmtpClient
                {
                    EnableSsl = true,
                    Host = "smtp.gmail.com",
                    Port = 587,
                    Credentials = new NetworkCredential("user@gmail.com", "password")
                })
                {
                    client.Send(message);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

The Execute method takes an IJobExecutionContext object as a parameter. The scheduler passes that in when calling the job's Execute method. It contains configuration data about the job (which you set a bit later). In this simple example, no use is made of the data in the context. All this example does in fact is to send an email message. The method body could contain anything that you want to happen. It could query a database and send emails to all the recipients found there, for instance. But on its own, the job does nothing.

The next section of code illustrates the scheduler being set up and the job, together with its trigger being created and assigned:

using Quartz;
using Quartz.Impl;
using System;

namespace ScheduledTaskExample.ScheduledTasks
{
    public class JobScheduler
    {
        public static void Start()
        {
            IScheduler scheduler = StdSchedulerFactory.GetDefaultScheduler();
            scheduler.Start();

            IJobDetail job = JobBuilder.Create<EmailJob>().Build();

            ITrigger trigger = TriggerBuilder.Create()
                .WithDailyTimeIntervalSchedule
                  (s =>
                     s.WithIntervalInHours(24)
                    .OnEveryDay()
                    .StartingDailyAt(TimeOfDay.HourAndMinuteOfDay(0, 0))
                  )
                .Build();

            scheduler.ScheduleJob(job, trigger);
        }
    }
}

I've called the class in which this takes place JobScheduler, but it could be called anything. In fact, this code doesn't even need to be in its own class. It can be placed wherever you want to start the scheduler. Typically in a web application, that will be in the Application_Start event of Global.asax. In this example, the actual code has been placed in a method called Start (although that too can be named anything). A scheduler is created and started in the first two lines. Then a job is created using the Quartz.NET JobBuilder.Create<T> method, where T is the type of job to be created. In this case, it's an instance of the EmailJob previously defined.

Next, a trigger is created. As I mentioned earlier, the trigger defines when the job is to be executed. In this case, the schedule is specifed as starting daily at midnight and having an interval of 24 hours. It is to execute every day. The options for trigger schedules are extremely flexible allowing for scheduling to a calendar as well as regular time-based intervals. Here's another example of a trigger taken from the documentation:

ITrigger trigger = TriggerBuilder.Create()
    .WithIdentity("trigger1", "group1")
    .StartNow()
    .WithSimpleSchedule(x => x
        .WithIntervalInSeconds(10)
        .RepeatForever())
    .Build();

This trigger has been given a name and group so that it can more easily be identified if you need to refer to it programmatically. It is designated to start immediately an to fire every 10 seconds until the end of time (or the scheduler stops for some reason). The fluent API makes it pretty simple to create triggers and to understand what they are doing.

Finally, the job together with its trigger is registered with the scheduler. All that's needed now is to get this code to execute. As mentioned previously, the best place to do this is within the Application_Start event of the Global.asax file, so a call to the JobScheduler.Start method is added their alongside the other bootstrapping tasks that need to take place on application startup:

using ScheduledTaskExample.ScheduledTasks;
using System;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Optimization;
using System.Web.Routing;

namespace ScheduledTaskExample
{
    public class Global : HttpApplication
    {
        void Application_Start(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            // Code that runs on application startup
            RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(RouteTable.Routes);
            BundleConfig.RegisterBundles(BundleTable.Bundles);
            JobScheduler.Start();
        }
    }
}

If you need to run tasks on a schedule as part of your ASP.NET application with reliable accuracy and don't have access to various scheduling options directly on the server - or even want an alternative to messing around with the Windows task scheduler - Quartz.NET is a great solution.

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37 Comments

- Tasos Piotopoulos

Great post! What about the application pool's idle timeout? Most shared hosting providers set it at a few minutes. Do those scheduled tasks still work even if none requests a page during the day?

- Mike

@Tasos,

Nothing in the site will run if the app pool has been unloaded. You can add a job to your scheduler that uses WebClient to request your home page every so often to prevent the app pool idle timeout kicking in.

- rahul mehta

very helpful

- mahmoud

Great! But as mike said, this scheduler has no garantee to run the tasks on scheduled time. If so, what is the difference between using this component and internal Timer class?

- Mike

@Mahmoud,

As I explained to Mike, you can add a job to the scheduler to "poke" your web application which will prevent your app pool from going idle. That will keep the scheduler going.

The timer class is only fit for very basic schedules. You can't use it to run a task every Sunday, for example, or every two hours between 8.00am and 6.00pm on weekdays only. Quartz provides a huge range of flexibility in scheduling.

- Deepak Dwivedi

Hey Mike,

It is really a very nice article but I have some doubts.
You are saying to add a job to the scheduler and use WebClient to request homepage, but I think I will consume huge bandwidth to ping home page every time.

Also what is the advantage to using Quartz.Net Job Scheduling over Sql Server Job Scheduling.

Thank you.

- Mike

@Deepak,

You only need to request your homepage often enough to prevent the idle timeout from kicking in. By default, that's once every 20 minutes. If your hosting company has set it to a smaller frequency, then the request will need to be made more frequently. Even if you set it for once a minute, that's only 60 requests an hour. That is not considered huge in anyone's book.

Some shared hosting plans don't provide access to SQL Server scheduling. Or SQL Server might not be part of your package if you are using Access or SQL Compact for your database. In those cases, SQL Server Jobs are not an option.

SQL Server Express is a popular option for low cost shared hosting. But it doesn't include the SQL Server Agent, so again, SQL Jobs are not possible.

- Marko Lahma

@Deepak

What might be worth noting is that Quartz.NET also supports database-backed job store. Say that trigger misses its scheduled fire time, the scheduler can recover from this. Scheduler sees that the scheduled fire time has passed and misfire handling kicks in. In other words, persisted schedules can be tracked and misfired triggers can be acted upon. See more details in docs about misfires.

When creating site ping functionality you can always define an 'echo page' that return only minimum text/plain OK response. Not a bandwidth hog then.

- jorge

ng System.Web.Optimization;
using System.Web.Routing;
using MTF.Classes;

namespace MTF
{
public class Global : System.Web.HttpApplication
{

protected void Application_Start(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
// Code that runs on application startup
RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(RouteTable.Routes);
BundleConfig.RegisterBundles(BundleTable.Bundles);

JobScheduler.Start();
}

I have an error with these two lines:
RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(RouteTable.Routes);
BundleConfig.RegisterBundles(BundleTable.Bundles);

Visual is not recognizing the commands. am i missing any library?
Thanks

- Satyabrata

Nice one.Very helpful.

- Phil Boyd

RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(RouteTable.Routes);
BundleConfig.RegisterBundles(BundleTable.Bundles);

RouteConfig and BundleConfig are 2 classes created within the basic MVC application template. Look for them in the App_Start folder.

- BG

Great post!
Can you elaborate on Quartz.NET vs async/await-functionality in C# 5.0.
Thanks

- Mike

@BG,

They have nothing to do with each other.

- FRK

How about using quartz.net to perform always running job with an interval from a windows service?

Is quartz.net designed to be used specifically for ASP.NET only or it can work with no issues in windows services as well?

- Mike

@FRK,

Sure, you can use Quartz.NET in combination with a Windows service. I was working on just such a project when I first came across Quartz.NET.

- Manas

Hi Mike,

Thank you for awesome article.

My concern is it might impact website
performance.

Because if we use Windows Service or Scheduler, this is different thread. It doesn't affect website performance.

So please suggest.
Regards,
Manas

- Mike

@Manas

If you can use a Windows Service or Scheduler, then do so. This article is for those people who can't.

I haven't measured the performance of the component, but if it was a concern for me, then I would.

- Mohammed Kalloub

Hi Mike,
Thank you for your useful article.

I implement it in my project, and everything run as expected.

but when I published the project on the web server, Quartz.net not executed, why?!!

- Mike

@Mohammed

Based on the information provided, I suspect something went wrong.

- Mohammed

Hi Mike,
Thank you for your reply.

I think that done because of I'm using a shared web hosting plan (Reseller Plan).

Is that possible?!, or what is the reason for the failure!!

Note: Quartz run locally & on local server with no error.

- Mike

@Mohammed

I have no idea. You should really post your issue to a forum somewhere.

- Huy

Great topic, but how to stop running job by click event of button on web page?

- sarta

Hi, I want to know does quartz is free or not

- Mike

@sarta,

Yes, it's free.

- Sathish kumar

Hi,
If we change the server time after hosting the Quartz.Net Scheduler in server will it work correctly or it wont trigger?

- smruti

I use this quartz application for email send but when i run application there is an error that jobrunshell.cs not found.
I put all debugger .it happen when controller reach at client.send(message).

Plz guide me.

- Mike

@smruti

That's not a Quartz issue. Something is going wrong with your email sending. You should check the Exception message for clues to fix it.

- Anders Baumann

Hi Mike.
Thanks for a nice article. I am considering using Quartz.Net in a .Net MVC app hosted in Azure or AppHarbor. What happens if my application is restarted/redeployed? (This happens with AppHarbor upon every push to the repository.) I don't want multiple Quartz jobs running in parallel.

- Mike

@Anders

Quartz will run in the same process as the web app, so if it is stopped, so is Quartz.

- Kadu Portugal

Hi Mike,

Thank you for your useful article.

I implement it in my project, and everything run as expected.

But, in 20 minutes the app pool is idle and stop my send email.
I put in my code this code to execute every minute:

WebClient webClient = new WebClient();
Stream stream = webClient.OpenRead("http://www.google.com");

But the webclient not renewed the time of app pool, and again in 20 minutes sending stopped!

What did I do wrong?

Thanks!

- Mike

@Kadu,

You need to request a page in your site to keep it alive, not Google.

- Ingmar

On December, 1st, Mohammed reported a problem with triggers not being executed when the web application is deployed.

I have the exact same issue.

To go sure I have no side effects, I used Mike's code 1:1 (except for his smtp credentials ;)).

Everyhting works perfectly as long as I run it locally in the Visual Studio IDE.

But once I deploy the application to my server, the trigger does not get fired anymore.

And in my case, it is NOT a shared server. The machine is my own and right under my desk. Windows Server 2012 R2 with IIS 8.5. The relevant application pool is set to StartMode=AlwaysRunning and Idle-Time out=0. In other words, it should not be sleeping.

I was wondering if anybody has/had the same problem and knows the solution. Would be great!!

Thanks!

(and thanks to you Mike for this cool article)

- Mike

Mike you just made my life a lot simpler. I have been looking for something like this for years. Great Article. Thanks

- Justin

I'm having the same problem as Ingmar. Everything is working fine locally in Visual Studio, but I can't get it to work on Windows Server 2012 R2, not even once.

- Satyabrata Mohapatra

Sir,

ASP.NET Web Forms is not part of ASP.NET 5.
http://stephenwalther.com/archive/2015/02/24/top-10-changes-in-asp-net-5-and-mvc-6

Though asp.net mvc gaining popularity day by day,web forms is still popular and many companies still not willing to move across to MVC. It is sad that web forms is no longer is a part of asp.net 5.Whats your thought??

- Mike

Web Forms is still being developed. Some improvements are promised in the next version , 4.6: http://www.asp.net/vnext/overview/aspnet-vnext/aspnet-5-overview#webforms. It's just that you won't be able to develop Web forms applications against the new "cloud-ready" framework.

My choice for new applications has been MVC for quite a few years but I still have some Web Forms apps. I'm not in any hurry to migrate them to MVC, though.

I predicted that Web Forms would become "Classic ASP.NET" 5 years ago: http://www.mikesdotnetting.com/article/145/introducing-webmatrix-an-easier-way-to-do-asp-net. See the last line.

- Muhammad Okfriansyah

Nice article here, But i have a question, How to make it dynamically? Like the starting from scheduler and endDate for scheduler can change dynamically from the application. And i already have the email reminder system that user can click the button to reminder(send an email) that person, but it still manual. But how to make it runs using scheduler? Is it to put the jobScheduler.start() in Page_Load? Thanks in advance
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